Setting is an environment or surrounding in which an event or story takes place. It may provide particular information about placement and timing.

Social conditions, historical time, geographical locations, weather, immediate surroundings, and timing are all different aspects of setting.

Three major components:

  1. social environmentsocial-environ800
  2. placesingapore
  3. timehttps_proxy

It has two main types:

Backdrop Setting – Backdrop setting emerges when it is not important for a story, and it could happen in any setting.


Integral Setting – It is when the place and time influences theme, character and action of a story. In this type, setting controls the characters and by controlling setting, writers could control their characters.  If they confine a certain character to a particular setting, it will define the character.



Plot is known as the foundation of a novel or story which the characters and settings are built around. It is meant to organize information and events in a logical manner.

When writing the plot of a piece of literature, the author has to be careful that it does not dominate the other parts of the story.


There are five(5) main elements in a plot.

  1. The Exposition or The Introduction:
    • The beginning of the story where characters and setting are established.
    • In some stories, the conflict or the main problem is introduced as well.
  2. The Rising Action:
    • Occurs when a series of events build up to the conflict.
    • The main characters are established by the time the rising action of a plot occurs and at the same time, events begin to get complicated.
    • It is during this part of a story that excitement, tension or crisis is encountered.
  3.  The Climax:
    • The turning point of the story and is meant to be the moment of highest interest and emotion. This would make readers to wonder what is going to happen next.
  4. The Falling Action:
    • Events and complications begin to resolve and the result of actions of the main characters are put forward.
  5. The Resolution or The Conclusion:
    • It is the end of a story and ends with either a happy or a tragic ending.
    • Sometimes the ending is describe in epilogue.

Examples of Plot:



Sub-genre a.k.a Common Genre

Sub-genre (a.k.a Common genre) are different varieties of writing styles that can be categories under two main genre: Fiction and Non-fiction.

Common genres: fiction


  • Classic – fiction that has become part of an accepted literary canon, widely taught in schoolsClassics396137_3249-2.jpg
  • Crime/detective – fiction about a crime, how the criminal gets caught, and the repercussions of the crime
  • Drama – stories composed in verse or prose, usually for theatrical performance, where conflicts and emotion are expressed through dialogue and action
  • Fable – narration demonstrating a useful truth, especially in which animals speak as humans; legendary, supernatural taleprompt-photo2.jpg
  • Fairy tale – story about fairies or other magical creatures
  • Fan fiction – fiction written by a fan of, and featuring characters from, a particular TV series, movie, or book
  • Fantasy – fiction with strange or otherworldly settings or characters; fiction which invites suspension of reality
  • Fiction in verse – full-length novels with plot, subplot(s), theme(s), major and minor characters, in which the narrative is presented in verse form (usually free verse)
  • Fiction narrative – literary works whose content is produced by the imagination and is not necessarily based on fact
  • Folklore – the songs, stories, myths, and proverbs of a people or “folk” as handed down by word of mouth
  • Historical fiction – story with fictional characters and events in a historical setting
  • Horror – fiction in which events evoke a feeling of dread and sometimes fear in both the characters and the reader
  • Humor – Usually a fiction full of fun, fancy, and excitement, meant to entertain and sometimes cause intended laughter; but can be contained in all genres
  • Legend – story, sometimes of a national or folk hero, that has a basis in fact but also includes imaginative material
  • Magical realism  – story where magical or unreal elements play a natural part in an otherwise realistic environment635890934224265787884431994_new-harry-potter-story-halloween.png
  • Meta fiction – also known as romantic irony in the context of Romantic works of literature, uses self-reference to draw attention to itself as a work of art, while exposing the “truth” of a story
  • Mystery – this is fiction dealing with the solution of a crime or the unraveling of secrets
  • Mythology – legend or traditional narrative, often based in part on historical events, that reveals human behavior and natural phenomena by its symbolism; often pertaining to the actions of the godsmaxresdefault.jpg
  • Mythopoeia – fiction in which characters from religious mythology, traditional myths, folklore and history are recast into a re-imagined realm created by the author
  • Picture book – picture storybook is a book with very little words and a lot of pictures, picture stories are usually for little kids
  • Realistic fiction – story that is true to life
  • Science fiction – story based on impact of actual, imagined, or potential science, usually set in the future or on other planets
  • Short story – fiction of such brevity that it supports no subplots
  • Suspense/thriller – fiction about harm about to befall a person or group and the attempts made to evade the harm
  • Tall tale – humorous story with blatant exaggerations, swaggering heroes who do the impossible with nonchalance

Common genres: nonfiction


  • Biography/autobiography  – narrative of a person’s life; a true story about a real person
  • Essay  – a short literary composition that reflects the author’s outlook or point.
  • Journalism – reporting on news and current events
  • Lab Report  – a report of an experiment
  • Memoir  – factual story that focuses on a significant relationship between the writer and a person, place, or object; reads like a short novel
  • Narrative nonfiction/personal narrative  – factual information about a significant event presented in a format which tells a story
  • Reference book  – such as a dictionary, thesaurus, encyclopedia, almanac, or atlas
  • Self-help book  – information with the intention of instructing readers on solving personal problems
  • Speech  – public address or discourse
  • Textbook  – authoritative and detailed factual description of a topic.

What is Genre?


Genre means the type of art, literature or music characterized by a specific form, content and style.

For example, literature has four main genres; poetry, drama, fiction and non-fiction.

These are the classic major genres that can be found in literature:

  • Fiction
  • Non- fiction
  • Comedy
  • Drama
  • Horror
  • Romance novel
  • Satire
  • Tragedy
  • Tragicomedy
  • Fantasy


Literary Devices


The term Literary Devices refers to the typical structures used by writers in their works to convey his or her message(s) in a simple manner to his or her readers.  In fact, there are hundreds of literary devices, mostly there are separated into two kinds.

Two Kinds of Literary Devices

Literary Devices have two aspects. They can be treated as either Literary Elements or Literary Techniques.


  1. Literary Elements have an inherent existence in literary piece and are extensively employed by writers to develop a literary piece e.g. plot, setting, narrative structure, characters, mood, theme, moral etc. Writers simply cannot create his desired work without including Literary Elements in a thoroughly professional manner.
    • Common Literary Elements

      • Plot: It is the logical sequence of events that develops a story.
      • Setting: It refers to the time and place in which a story takes place.
      • Protagonist: It is the  main character of story, novel or a play e.g. Hamlet in the play Hamlet
      • Antagonist: It is the character in conflict with the Protagonist e.g. Claudius in the play Hamlet
      • Narrator: A person who tells the story.
      • Narrative method: The manner in which a narrative is presented comprising plot and setting.
      • Dialogue: Where characters of a narrative speak to one another.
      • Conflict. It is n issue in a narrative around which the whole story revolves.
      • Mood: A general atmosphere of a narrative.
      • Theme: It is central idea or concept of a story.


  2. Literary Techniques, on the contrary, are structures usually a word s or phrases in literary texts that writers employ to achieve not merely artistic ends but also readers a greater understanding and appreciation of their literary works.
    • Common Literary Techniques

      1. Imagery: It is the use of figurative language to create visual representations of actions, objects and ideas in our mind in such a way that they appeal to our physical senses. For example:

      • The room was dark and gloomy. -The words “dark” and “gloomy” are visual images.
      • The river was roaring in the mountains. – The word “roaring” appeals to our sense of hearing.

      2. Simile and Metaphor: Both compare two distinct objects and draws similarity between them. The difference is that Simile uses “as” or “like” and Metaphor does not. For example:

      • “My love is like a red red rose” (Simile)
      • He is an old fox very cunning. (Metaphor)


      3. Hyperbole: It is deliberate exaggeration of actions and ideas for the sake of emphasis. For example:

      • Your bag weighs a ton!
      • I have got a million issues to look after!

      4. Personification: It gives a thing, an idea or an animal human qualities. For example:

      • The flowers are dancing beside the lake.
      • Have you see my new car? She is a real beauty!

      5. Alliteration: It refers to the same consonant sounds in words coming together. For example:

      • Better butter always makes the batter better.
      • She sells seashells at seashore.

      6. Allegory: It is a literary technique in which an abstract idea is given a form of characters, actions or events. For example:

      • “Animal Farm”, written by George Orwell, is an example allegory using the actions of animals on a farm to represent the overthrow of the last of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II and the Communist Revolution of Russia before WW II.  In addition, the actions of the animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the Revolution.

      7. Irony: It is use of the words in such a way in which the intended meaning is completely opposite to their literal meaning. For example:

      • The bread is soft as a stone.
      • So nice of you to break my new PSP!


What is Literature?


There are many definitions has been developed across decades. For example:

  • To speak sweepingly one can say, summarizing, that in antiquity and in the Renaissance, literature or letters were understood to include all writing of quality with any pretense to permanence (Wellek 1978:20).
  • Literature includes any text worthy to be taught to students by teachers of literature, when these texts are not being taught to students in other departments of a school or university (Hirsch 1978:34).

In short, “literature” is a term used to describe written and sometimes spoken material. Derived from the Latin “litteratura” meaning “writing formed with letters,” literature most commonly refers to works of the creative imagination, including poetry, drama, fiction, nonfiction, journalism, and in some instances, song.


Why do we read literature?

Top Ten Reasons Why We Need More Literature
(by Steven Lynn and Louise Fry Scudder from University of South Carolina)

1. Imagination: Reading literature cultivates the imagination. That’s one reason why tyrants and dictators hate literature, banning or strictly controlling it. From the ancient Greeks to the present day, cultures steeped in literary study have thrived on creativity and innovation.

2. Communication: Writing and talking about literature helps prepare students to write and talk about anything. Not only are they working with words, with carefully considered language, but they are also considering how different kinds of people think and react to and understand words.

3. Analysis: Literary works—whether fiction, poetry, drama, creative nonfiction—challenge readers to make connections, to weigh evidence, to question, to notice details, to make sense out of a rich experience. These analytical abilities are fundamental life skills.

4. Empathy: Because literature allows us to inhabit different perspectives (What’s it like to be a teenage girl, a Jew, in Nazi Germany? How would you feel if you thought your father had been murdered but no one else believed that?), in different times and places, we learn to think about how other people see the world. We can understand and persuade and accept and help these others more effectively and fully.

5. Understanding: We think in terms of stories: this happens, and then that happens, and what’s the connection between these events, and what is going to happen next? People who’ve experienced more stories are better able to think about actions and consequences. Experience is the best teacher; literature is the best vehicle for vastly enlarging our possible experiences.

6. Agility: Literary works often ask us to think in complex ways, to hold sometimes contradictory, or apparently conflicting ideas in our minds. As brain imaging has shown, this kind of processing helps us to be more mentally flexible and agile—open to new ideas.

7. Meaningfulness: Literary works often challenge us to think about our place in the world, about the significance of what we are trying to do. Literary study encourages an “examined” life—a richer life. It provides us with an almost unlimited number of test cases, allowing us to think about the motivations and values of various characters and their interactions.

8. Travel: Literature allows us to visit places and times and encounter cultures that we would otherwise never experience. Such literary travel can be profoundly life-enhancing.

9. Inspiration: Writers use words in ways that move us. Readers throughout the ages have found reasons to live, and ways to live, in literature.

10. Fun: When students read literature that is appropriate for them, it’s intensely fun. Movies are enjoyable, but oftentimes the written version, readers will say, is more powerful and engrossing. Students who don’t find literature to be a whole lot of fun are almost certainly reading the wrong things (too difficult, too removed from their interests), and not reading enough (perhaps they are slogging line by line, week by week, through a text beyond their growing capabilities). When students do discover the fun of literature, they will read more and more, vaulting forward in verbal skills and reasoning abilities, and becoming better readers and writers of other kinds of texts (letters, memos, legal briefs, political speeches, etc.).