Setting is an environment or surrounding in which an event or story takes place. It may provide particular information about placement and timing.

Social conditions, historical time, geographical locations, weather, immediate surroundings, and timing are all different aspects of setting.

Three major components:

  1. social environmentsocial-environ800
  2. placesingapore
  3. timehttps_proxy

It has two main types:

Backdrop Setting – Backdrop setting emerges when it is not important for a story, and it could happen in any setting.


Integral Setting – It is when the place and time influences theme, character and action of a story. In this type, setting controls the characters and by controlling setting, writers could control their characters.  If they confine a certain character to a particular setting, it will define the character.



Plot is known as the foundation of a novel or story which the characters and settings are built around. It is meant to organize information and events in a logical manner.

When writing the plot of a piece of literature, the author has to be careful that it does not dominate the other parts of the story.


There are five(5) main elements in a plot.

  1. The Exposition or The Introduction:
    • The beginning of the story where characters and setting are established.
    • In some stories, the conflict or the main problem is introduced as well.
  2. The Rising Action:
    • Occurs when a series of events build up to the conflict.
    • The main characters are established by the time the rising action of a plot occurs and at the same time, events begin to get complicated.
    • It is during this part of a story that excitement, tension or crisis is encountered.
  3.  The Climax:
    • The turning point of the story and is meant to be the moment of highest interest and emotion. This would make readers to wonder what is going to happen next.
  4. The Falling Action:
    • Events and complications begin to resolve and the result of actions of the main characters are put forward.
  5. The Resolution or The Conclusion:
    • It is the end of a story and ends with either a happy or a tragic ending.
    • Sometimes the ending is describe in epilogue.

Examples of Plot:



Literary Devices


The term Literary Devices refers to the typical structures used by writers in their works to convey his or her message(s) in a simple manner to his or her readers.  In fact, there are hundreds of literary devices, mostly there are separated into two kinds.

Two Kinds of Literary Devices

Literary Devices have two aspects. They can be treated as either Literary Elements or Literary Techniques.


  1. Literary Elements have an inherent existence in literary piece and are extensively employed by writers to develop a literary piece e.g. plot, setting, narrative structure, characters, mood, theme, moral etc. Writers simply cannot create his desired work without including Literary Elements in a thoroughly professional manner.
    • Common Literary Elements

      • Plot: It is the logical sequence of events that develops a story.
      • Setting: It refers to the time and place in which a story takes place.
      • Protagonist: It is the  main character of story, novel or a play e.g. Hamlet in the play Hamlet
      • Antagonist: It is the character in conflict with the Protagonist e.g. Claudius in the play Hamlet
      • Narrator: A person who tells the story.
      • Narrative method: The manner in which a narrative is presented comprising plot and setting.
      • Dialogue: Where characters of a narrative speak to one another.
      • Conflict. It is n issue in a narrative around which the whole story revolves.
      • Mood: A general atmosphere of a narrative.
      • Theme: It is central idea or concept of a story.


  2. Literary Techniques, on the contrary, are structures usually a word s or phrases in literary texts that writers employ to achieve not merely artistic ends but also readers a greater understanding and appreciation of their literary works.
    • Common Literary Techniques

      1. Imagery: It is the use of figurative language to create visual representations of actions, objects and ideas in our mind in such a way that they appeal to our physical senses. For example:

      • The room was dark and gloomy. -The words “dark” and “gloomy” are visual images.
      • The river was roaring in the mountains. – The word “roaring” appeals to our sense of hearing.

      2. Simile and Metaphor: Both compare two distinct objects and draws similarity between them. The difference is that Simile uses “as” or “like” and Metaphor does not. For example:

      • “My love is like a red red rose” (Simile)
      • He is an old fox very cunning. (Metaphor)


      3. Hyperbole: It is deliberate exaggeration of actions and ideas for the sake of emphasis. For example:

      • Your bag weighs a ton!
      • I have got a million issues to look after!

      4. Personification: It gives a thing, an idea or an animal human qualities. For example:

      • The flowers are dancing beside the lake.
      • Have you see my new car? She is a real beauty!

      5. Alliteration: It refers to the same consonant sounds in words coming together. For example:

      • Better butter always makes the batter better.
      • She sells seashells at seashore.

      6. Allegory: It is a literary technique in which an abstract idea is given a form of characters, actions or events. For example:

      • “Animal Farm”, written by George Orwell, is an example allegory using the actions of animals on a farm to represent the overthrow of the last of the Russian Tsar Nicholas II and the Communist Revolution of Russia before WW II.  In addition, the actions of the animals on the farm are used to expose the greed and corruption of the Revolution.

      7. Irony: It is use of the words in such a way in which the intended meaning is completely opposite to their literal meaning. For example:

      • The bread is soft as a stone.
      • So nice of you to break my new PSP!